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Number 4

Swimming requires frequent lifting and rotating of the head to inhale. A snorkeler saves energy by avoiding this maneuver, but the snorkel adds breathing work due to air flow resistance. The needed power of these head movements has never been examined, although the extra power of breathing through a snorkel was studied recently. This study aimed: 1) to model the work of vertically lifting and rotating in comparison with the breathing work added by a snorkel; 2) to compare heart rate (HR) and velocity (v) while swimming under both conditions; 3) to evaluate the results for surface-swimming divers. Presumably ..
Introduction: Global evidence on the epidemiology of prevalent diving-related injuries (DRI) different from decompression sickness (DCS) and other fatalities is lacking. This study aimed to perform a comprehensive review of DRIs in the year-period between 2010-2020 in a non-hyperbaric tertiary hospital in the Spanish Mediterranean coast, in addition to identifying patient risk factors for severe middle ear barotrauma.  Methods: The study was conducted via a retrospective review of medical records during a 10-year period (2010- 2020) at the University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe (UPHLF) of Valencia. We performed a case-control study recruiting controls through an online survey to identify independent ..
Background: Changes in barometric pressure conditions that occur during flying and diving under hyperbaric oxygen conditions were found to influence the retention of dental restorations. Aim: This experimental laboratory study aimed to evaluate the bond strength of glass fiber posts after being cemented with self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX™ Unicem, 3M ESPE) and self-etch adhesive resin cement (RelyX™ Ultimate, 3M ESPE) under normal atmospheric pressure and hyperbaric pressure cycles that simulate diving conditions. Methods: A total of 40 extracted, single-rooted mandibular premolars were treated endodontically and randomly divided into two groups according to the cements used for fiber post cementation. Each group ..
Introduction: Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) is a condition from which only a minority of patients recover completely, the majority ending up with mild to moderate residual symptoms. IEDCS has been reported after deep technical dives using mixed breathing gases, and moderate recreational dives with compressed air as the breathing gas. Considering this and the high proportion of technical diving in Finland, a comparison between IEDCS cases resulting from technical and recreational dives is warranted. Methods: This is a retrospective examination of IEDCS patients treated at Hyperbaric Center Medioxygen or National Hyperbaric Centre of Turku University Hospital from 1999 to ..
Critically ill patients needing mechanical ventilation may require hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Some institutions still use ventilators that were available prior to the advent of hyperbaric-specific units, such as the Uni-Vent Eagle™ model 754. Here we examine the performance of the Uni-Vent model 754 under hyperbaric conditions and investigate concerns of an oxygen leak in the ventilator housing, which poses a fire risk. We studied the ventilator at 1.0, 2.4 and 2.8 ATA in assist control mode using a Michigan test lung and a variety of tidal volumes and respiratory rates. We recorded the delivered volumes, peak pressures, and oxygen ..
This study aimed to compare the efficacy of two commonly used therapeutic pressures, 2.0 atmospheres absolute (ATA) versus 2.2 ATA, applied in hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 160 SSNHL patients treated by typical therapy or additional HBO2 therapy with pressure 2.0 or 2.2 ATA at Yijishan Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, from February 2018 to May 2020. The pure-tone threshold audiometry results pre- and post-treatment were compared across three groups. In the range of frequencies 250-500 Hz, P2.0 (20.92±26.11 dB, p=0.047) and P2.2 ..
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a condition that causes sudden vision loss due to obstruction of the retinal artery, typically from a thrombotic or embolic source. It is often associated with atherosclerotic risk factors, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and a history of cerebrovascular disease. CRAO often leads to a poor visual outcome as well as neovascularization of the iris, retina, and optic disc, which can exacerbate vision loss and cause pain. While there are several treatment modalities for CRAO, few have been proven to be effective in decreasing the effects of neovascularization. The use of hyperbaric oxygen ..
Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) are relatively common complications of acute carbon monoxide (CO)poisoning, and usually develop within several days to weeks after the initial clinical recovery from acute CO poisoning. DNS can consist of various symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, ataxia, seizures, urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, emotional lability, disorientation, hallucinations, mutism, cortical blindness, psychosis, parkinsonism, gait disturbances, rigidity, bradykinesia, and other motor disturbances. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a potentially life-threatening disease secondary to acute acquired brain injury. It is characterized by episodic and simultaneous paroxysmal increases in sympathetic and motor activities, not rare in patients with a ..
Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) is a rare diving complication that presents with vestibular dysfunction, cochlear dysfunction, or a combination of both. While scuba diving is a known cause, no cases have been reported in the occupational hyperbaric setting. We present the case of a 55-year-old man who developed IEDCS after working as a hyperbaric multiplace chamber inside tender. The patient was treated with seven sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, resulting in resolution of the majority of his symptoms. This case illustrates a potential occupational hazard of working in a hyperbaric chamber and demonstrates successful treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. 10.22462/07.08.2021.9
A significant and consistently positive body of evidence from animal and human studies of thermal injury supports the use of hyperbaric oxygen as a means of preventing dermal ischemia, reducing edema, modulating the zone of stasis, preventing partial- to full-thickness conversion, preserving cellular metabolism and promoting healing. The vast majority of clinical reports have shown reduction in mortality, length of hospital stay, number of surgeries and cost of care. Hyperbaric oxygen has been demonstrated to be safe in the hands of those thoroughly trained in rendering this therapy in the critical care setting and with appropriate monitoring precautions. Careful ..
Update: originally posted in Vol 48 #2 Exposure to a reduction in ambient pressure such as in high-altitude climbing, flying in aircrafts, and decompression from underwater diving results in circulating vascular gas bubbles (i.e., venous gas emboli [VGE]). Incidence and severity of VGE, in part, can objectively quantify decompression stress and risk of decompression sickness (DCS) which is typically mitigated by adherence to decompression schedules. However, dives conducted at altitude challenge recommendations for decompression schedules which are limited to exposures of 10,000 feet in the U.S. Navy Diving Manual (Rev. 7). Therefore, in an ancillary analysis within a larger study, ..
Letter: Letter: Consideration of the numerous etiologies of carbon monoxide exposures 10.22462/07.08.2021.12 
Response - Consideration of the numerous etiologies of carbon monoxide exposures 10.22462/07.08.2021.13