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Introduction: Pre-dive altitude exposure may increase respiratory fatigue and subsequently augment exercise ventilation at depth. This study examined pre-dive altitude exposure and the efficacy of resistance respiratory muscle training (RMT) on respiratory fatigue while diving at altitude. Methods: Ten men (26±5 years; V̇ O2peak: 39.8±3.3 mL• kg-1•min-1) performed three dives; one control (ground level) and two simulated altitude dives (3,658 m) to 17 msw, relative to ground level, before and after four weeks of resistance RMT. Subjects performed pulmonary function testing (e.g., inspiratory [PI] and expiratory [PE] pressure testing) pre- and post-RMT and during dive visits. During each dive, subjects ..
Update article published in Vol. 48 #4 (View is linked to updated article) Exposure to a reduction in ambient pressure such as in high-altitude climbing, flying in aircrafts, and decompression from underwater diving results in circulating vascular gas bubbles (i.e., venous gas emboli [VGE]). Incidence and severity of VGE, in part, can objectively quantify decompression stress and risk of decompression sickness (DCS) which is typically mitigated by adherence to decompression schedules. However, dives conducted at altitude challenge recommendations for decompression schedules which are limited to exposures of 10,000 feet in the U.S. Navy Diving Manual (Rev. 7). Therefore, in an ..
Multiday hyperbaric exposure has been shown to reduce the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) of compressed-air workers. This effect, termed acclimatization, has been addressed in a number of studies, but no comprehensive review has been published. This systematic review reports the findings of a literature search. PubMed, Ovid Embase, The Cochrane Library and Rubicon Research Repository were searched for studies reporting DCS incidence, venous gas embolism (VGE) or subjective health reports after multiday hyperbaric exposure in man and experimental animals. Twenty-nine studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Three epidemiological studies reported statistically significant acclimatization to DCS in compressedair workers after multiday ..
Middle ear barotrauma (MEB) is a common complication of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy. It has been reported in more than 40% of HBO2 treatments and can interrupt the sequence of HBO2. MEB may lead to pain, tympanic membrane rupture, and even hearing loss. The aim of this study was to determine if pretreatment with intranasal fluticasone and oxymetazoline affected the incidence of MEB. We conducted a retrospective chart review of subjects undergoing HBO2 at our institution between February 1, 2014, and May 31, 2019. Subjects in the fluticasone/ oxymetazoline (FOT) treatment group used intranasal fluticasone 50 mcg two times ..
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas produced via breakdown of organic matter. Hydrogen sulfide exposure can cause symptoms ranging in severity from mild effects (dizziness, headache, nausea) to severe lactic acidosis, respiratory failure, pulmonary edema, cardiac arrhythmias and death. Treatment modalities include oral countermeasures and 100% FiO2 with supportive therapy. However, case studies utilizing hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy have been reported with general benefit seen in severe cases of toxicity. In this report, cases of mild to moderate H2S toxicity occurred aboard a U.S. Navy ship, resulting in a mass casualty incident of more than 30 patients. Patient ..
Introduction: Safe administration of critical care hyperbaric medicine requires specialized equipment and advanced training. Equipment must be tested in order to evaluate function in the hyperbaric environment. High-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) has been used in intensive care settings effectively, but it has never been tested in a hyperbaric chamber. Methods: Following a modified U.S. Navy testing protocol used to evaluate hyperbaric ventilators, we evaluated an HFPV transport ventilator in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber at 1.0, 1.9, and 2.8 atmospheres absolute (ATA). We used a test lung with analytical software for data collection. The ventilator uses simultaneous cyclic pressure-controlled ventilation ..
Gas embolism is a potential and often life-threatening complication of central venous catheters. We report a case of air embolism after tearing of the central catheter associated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The severity of the clinical situation meant choices had to be made regarding the order of treatments. This clinical case provided useful eye-openers for patient management regarding the prioritization of treatments as well as the possibilities offered by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. z DOI: 10.22462/03.04.2021.7
Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and cardiac arrest can cause neurological complications such as mental deterioration and movement disorders through ischemic brain injury. We report a case in which neurological sequelae after cardiac arrest caused by CO poisoning improved after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy. Case report: A 43-year-old male visited the hospital with cardiac arrest due to CO poisoning. He developed neurological sequelae including mental deterioration and myoclonus after recovering spontaneous circulation. Anticonvulsant therapy was used after target temperature management but did not have a positive effect on neurological symptoms. However, after HBO2 therapy the patient’s neurological symptoms improved, ..
A 52-year-old male accidentally ingested approximately 100 mL of 35% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), resulting in the sudden onset of gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms. Non-contrast abdominal CT revealed extensive portal venous gas and gastric pneumatosis. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy which resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. The case highlights the therapeutic value of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of vascular gas embolism and mitigation of concentrated H2O2 ingestion toxicity. DOI: 10.22462/03.04.2021.9
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ingestion can cause vascular gas embolism (GE). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) is known to improve neurological abnormalities in patients with arterial gas embolism (AGE). Previously, HBO2 based on the U.S. Navy Table 6 diving protocol has been adopted for treating AGE and preventing the progression of portal venous GE, caused by H2O2 ingestion, to AGE. However, the indication and protocol for HBO2 have not been established for GE related to H2O2 ingestion. Herein, we describe a case in which GE caused by H2O2 ingestion was treated using HBO2 with a short protocol.  A 69-year-old female patient presented ..
RATIONALE Decompression sickness (DCS, “bends”) is caused by the formation of bubbles in tissues and/or blood when the sum of dissolved gas pressures exceeds ambient pressure (supersaturation) [1]. This may occur when ambient pressure is reduced during: ascent from a dive; rapid ascent to altitude in an unpressurized aircraft or hypobaric chamber; loss of cabin pressure in an aircraft [2]; and during space walks. In diving, compressed-gas breathing is usually necessary, although occasionally DCS has occurred after either repetitive or very deep breath-hold dives [3,4]. DCS can rarely occur in hyperbaric tenders after decompression from standard hyperbaric treatment at ..