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The SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19) pandemic remains a major worldwide public health issue. Initially, improved supportive and anti-inflammatory intervention, often employing known drugs or technologies, provided measurable improvement in management. We have recently seen advances in specific therapeutic interventions and in vaccines. Nevertheless, it will be months before most of the world’s population can be vaccinated to achieve herd immunity. In the interim, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment offers several potentially beneficial therapeutic effects. Three small published series, one with a propensity-score-matched control group, have demonstrated safety and initial efficacy. Additional anecdotal reports are consistent with these publications. HBO2 delivers oxygen in ..
Neuropathic pain (NPP) refers to the pain caused by primary or secondary injury or dysfunction of the peripheral or central nervous system, and usually requires multidisciplinary treatment. However, most pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions can only temporarily and/or moderately improve pain-related symptoms, and they often produce unbearable adverse reactions or cause drug resistance. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy has been widely used in the clinical treatment of some diseases due to ABSTRACT its advantages of safety, few side effects, no resistance, and non-invasiveness. In recent years, increasing numbers of basic and clinical studies have been conducted to investigate the efficacy and ..
Background: The treatment of decompression sickness (DCS) with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) serves to decrease intravascular bubble size, increase oxygen (O2) delivery to tissue and enhance the elimination of inert gas. Emulsified perfluorocarbons (PFC) combined with breathing O2 have been shown to have similar effects animal models. We studied an ovine model of severe DCS treated with the intravenous PFC OxycyteTM while breathing O2 compared to saline control also breathing O2. Methods: Juvenile male sheep (N=67; weight 24.4+/2.10kg) were compressed to 257 feet of sea water (fsw) in our multiple large-animal chamber where they remained under pressure for 31 minutes. ..
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the capability of a pulse CO-oximeter to continuously monitor carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy. We estimated limits of agreement (LOA) between blood gas analysis and pulse CO-oximeter for COHb during HBO2 therapy in patients suffering from acute CO poisoning. Furthermore, we did a medicotechnical evaluation of the pulse CO-oximeter in hyperbaric conditions. Method: We conducted a prospective, non-clinical, observational study in which we included n=10 patients with acute CO poisoning referred for HBO2 therapy. We did five repeated measurements of COHb for each patient during the HBO2 therapy. Bland-Altman analysis for ..
Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy is a safe and well-tolerated treatment modality. Seizures, one of the most severe central nervous system side effects of HBO2 therapy, can occur. Episodes of seizures during HBO2 therapy have not yet been reported in countries such as Korea, where hyperbaric medicine is still in the developmental stage. Methods: The registry data of all patients treated with HBO2 therapy in a tertiary academic hospital in Korea were prospectively collected, and patients who developed seizures during HBO2 therapy between October 2016 and December 2019 were evaluated. In addition, we reviewed previous studies on occurrence of seizures ..
Paroxysmal autonomic instability syndrome with dystonia (PAISD) is a possible complication that worsens the prognosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy related to non-fatal drowning. There are case reports of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy enhancing recovery in such cases. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit after a non-fatal drowning. He was transferred under mechanical ventilation and sedation, with hemodynamic instability and hypothermia. On admission he had a Glasgow Coma Score of 6. On the fifth day of admission he presented episodes of dystonia with decerebration posture, diaphoresis, tachycardia and hypertension, sometimes with identified ..
Decompression sickness (DCS) remains a major operational concern for diving operations, submarine escape and high-altitude jumps. Aside from DCS symptoms, venous gas emboli (VGE) detected with ultrasound postdive are often used as a marker of decompression stress in humans, with a specificity of 100% even though the sensitivity is poor [1]. Being non-invasive, portable and non-ionizing, ultrasound is particularly suited to regular and repeated monitoring. It could help elucidate interand intra-subject variability in VGE and DCS susceptibility, but analyzing these recordings remains a cumbersome task [2]. DOI: 10.22462/01.03.2021.7
It is widely accepted that bubbles are a necessary but insufficient condition for the development of decompression sickness. However, open questions remain regarding the precise formation and behavior of these bubbles after an ambient pressure reduction (decompression), primarily due to the inherent difficulty of directly observing this phenomenon in vivo. In decompression research, information about these bubbles after a decompression is gathered via means of ultrasound acquisitions. The ability to draw conclusions regarding decompression research using ultrasound is highly influenced by the variability of the methodologies and equipment utilized by different research groups. These differences play a significant role ..
Venous gas emboli (VGE) are often quantified as a marker of decompression stress on echocardiograms. Bubblecounting has been proposed as an easy to learn method, but remains time-consuming, rendering large dataset analysis impractical. Computer automation of VGE counting following this method has therefore been suggested as a means to eliminate rater bias and save time. A necessary step for this automation relies on the selection of a frame during late ventricular diastole (LVD) for each cardiac cycle of the recording. Since electrocardiograms (ECG) are not always recorded in field experiments, here we propose a fully automated method for LVD ..
The snorkel allows a surface swimmer to observe the underwater world through the face mask without being disturbed by inhaling. The effect of a snorkel on breathing resistance and cost is widely held to be substantial. This study aims to model these parameters and to measure indirectly the actual increases. Further, resistances of differing designs and dimensions were assessed and recommendations were made concerning use and choice. Maximal voluntary ventilation in 12 seconds (MVV12) was measured in 19 volunteers seated on dry land with and without a classic J-type snorkel (inner diameter 20.5 mm). The extra and total resistances ..
The New York Bridge and Tunnel Commission began planning for a tunnel beneath the lower Hudson river to connect Manhattan to New Jersey in 1919. At 8,300 feet, it would be the longest tunnel for passenger vehicles in the world. A team of engineers and physiologists at the Yale University Bureau of Mines Experiment Station was tasked with calculating the ventilation requirements that would provide safety from exposure to automobile exhaust carbon monoxide (CO) while balancing the cost of providing ventilation. As the level of ambient CO which was comfortably tolerated was not precisely defined, they performed human exposures ..
The term “intracranial abscess” (ICA) includes cerebral abscess, subdural empyema, and epidural empyema, which share many diagnostic and therapeutic similarities and, frequently, very similar etiologies. Infection may occur and spread from a contiguous infection such as sinusitis, otitis, mastoiditis, or dental infection; hematogenous seeding; or cranial trauma. In view of the high morbidity and mortality of ICA and the fact that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) is relatively non-invasive and carries a low complication rate, the risk-benefit ratio favors adjunct use of HBO2 therapy in selected patients with intracranial abscess. DOI:  10.22462/01.03.2021.12