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Hyperbaric oxygen for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis after stem cell transplantation: case report

Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in both children and adults has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early HC can occur within 48 hours of completing the chemotherapy conditioning regimen, is usually associated with agents such as cyclophosphamide, and generally resolves promptly. Late HC is commonly associated with BK and other viruses and can prove refractory to antiviral and supportive therapy. There are limited reports of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy showing benefit for refractory HC cases. We describe our experience with salvage HBO2 for a 15-yearold male with refractory HC beginning one month post AHSCT and associated with BK virus. Despite supportive therapies including hyperhydration, forced diuresis, transfusions, intravenous and intravesical cidofovir, macroscopic hematuria persisted and resulted in post-obstructive acute renal failure, need for a suprapubic catheter, then bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy tubes. HBO2 was started two months after the AHSCT and one month after detection of BK viremia. In the week prior to starting HBO2 therapy the patient required transfusion with 25 units of red blood cells and seven units of platelets. After HBO2 was started his transfusion requirements progressively decreased, and he had return of renal function. He had no adverse effect from the HBO2. HBO2 therapy could thus be useful in controlling refractory HC after AHSCT.

DOI: 10.22462/01.03.2020.13