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Hypoxia is one of the main problems an underwater diver may have to face. The probability of experiencing hypoxia is related to the type of dive and the equipment used. Hypoxia in diving is a potentially fatal event for the diver, as it can lead to the loss of brain functions and consequently to the loss of breathing control, all in the absence of specific premonitory symptoms. It is a risk that may be encountered more frequently by divers who use a closed-circuit rebreather (CCR). For those who use this type of equipment, hypoxia is usually the most frequent cause of death [1]. Our study was aimed at the detection ..
Purpose: This study examined the independent effects of cold-water submersion and a rehydration strategy on an aerobic endurance performance and orthostatic tolerance following a four-hour dive in cold water (10°C).Methods: Nine male subjects completed a control (CON) performance and lower-body negative pressure test (LBNP) and two water immersion visits with either no rehydration (NR) or a post-immersion rehydration (RH) with 1 L of water. Following submersion, subjects ran to exhaustion and submitted to LBNP.Results: Core body temperature declined during submersion and remained reduced from baseline until the run (P <0.001) and was not different between NR and RH (P ..
Crew survival in a distressed submarine (DISSUB) scenario may be enhanced by the knowledge of the risks of different types of decompression sickness (DCS) should the crew attempt tower escape. Four models were generated through calibration against DCS outcome data from 3,919 pressure exposures, each for the prediction of one of four categories of DCS: neurological, limb pain, respiratory and cutaneous. The calibration data contained details of human, goat, sheep and pig exposures to raised pressure while breathing air or oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. No exposures had substantial staged decompression or cases of suspected pulmonary barotrauma. DCS risk was scaled between ..
Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcers are a frequent complication of diabetes and the first cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputation. They affect quality of life, restrict social productivity and generate a high economic burden for health care systems. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy is an adjunctive treatment option because it improves wound healing in the short term. However, its ability to modulate the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance and the hypoxic cell response in the clinical setting has not been fully described. Objective: To determine modifications in HIF-1α, NF-κB, IGFBP-3, and VEGF expression in wounds as well as circulating inflammatory cytokines in patients ..
Background: Perianal fistulizing Crohn’s disease (pCD) has a significant impact on patients’ health and quality of life. Current treatment options have a relatively low success rate and a high recurrence risk. Positive effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy have been indicated in animal studies as well as in small case series. Methods/Design: This is a non-randomized, controlled pilot study. A total of 20 patients with pCD who have been refractory to standard therapy for at least six months will be included. Patients with a seton and stable treatment regimen will be included. Patients with anal strictures, rectovaginal fistulas, stoma or ..
Introduction: Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) and middle ear barotrauma (MEB) are the most common adverse effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatments. Patients practice equalization maneuvers to prevent ETD and MEB prior to hyperbaric exposure. Some patients are still unable to equalize middle ear pressure. This ETD results in undesirable consequences, including barotrauma, treatment with medications or surgical myringotomy with tube placement and interruption of HBO2. When additional medications and myringotomy are employed, they are associated with additional complications.Methods: A device known as the Ear Popper® has been reported to reduce complications from serous otitis media and reduce the need ..
Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning causes hypoxia and inflammation, which could adversely affect muscle. We could find no published information about CO poisoning causing myositis. Case report: A 53-year-old previously healthy female semi-truck driver had CO poisoning from a faulty diesel engine exhaust intermittently over three months, culminating in an episode of acute CO poisoning, with syncope after exiting the truck at the end of the three-month period. Neuropsychological symptoms immediately after the acute poisoning event were followed by the development of fatigue, weakness and myalgias within two months and a diagnosis of “polymyositis” within four months. C-reactive protein and ..
Adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer treatment often involves high doses of radiation, making patients more susceptible to late radiation tissue injury (LRTI), severe complications of which involve necrosis and ulceration. Treatment of such wounds is challenging. One modality that can be utilized is hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy. However, an optimal dose and the objective evidence of its benefit in use as an adjunctive treatment modality is limited. Presented here is a case of a non-surgical candidate in which serial indocyanine green fluorescence angiography (ICGFA) was utilized to determine if it could detect changes in tissue perfusion over the ..
More blast injuries are encountered in the civilian setting in recent years as terrorist attacks have increased globally. A 17-year-old male patient with severe blast injury of the right lower extremity was admitted to our department on the fifth day after a terrorist bombing attack. Initially he had been admitted to an emergency department with segmental tibia fracture and arterial injury (Gustilo IIIC). An amputation had been foreseen due to ischemia that persisted even after orthopedic fixation and revascularization interventions, followed by fasciotomy incisions. After consultation with our department hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy was administered twice daily for the ..
Decompression sickness is a disease caused by abrupt pressure change and presents various symptoms. To date, acute kidney injury associated with decompression sickness has been reported frequently, but there is no report of hepatic infarction associated with decompression sickness. We report a case of acute kidney injury and acute hepatic infarction treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy and dialysis in a patient with severe decompression sickness after work diving. 10.22462/01.03.2019.10
Middle ear barotrauma is common in diving. However, facial nerve baroparesis is a relatively rare complication. A dehiscent facial nerve canal may be a predisposing factor to developing this complication. Although there is an increasing number of facial baroparesis cases in the literature, they are likely still under-reported. In order to avoid unnecessary recompression treatments or detrimental effects to a professional diver’s career, it is important to consider this in the differential diagnosis while evaluating dive injuries. This case report describes recurrent facial baroparesis in a military diver, which manifested on contralateral sides of his face. His initial presentation ..